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Hiccups and breathing in human fetuses.
  1. M Pillai,
  2. D James
  1. Department of Obstetrics, Bristol University.


    Serial recording in 45 low risk fetuses throughout the second and third trimesters showed that hiccups were the predominant diaphragmatic movement before 26 weeks' gestational age and that there was a significant negative correlation with gestational age. There was a pronounced reduction between 24 and 26 weeks, which was the result of a decrease in the number of episodes of hiccups rather than a change in the duration of episodes. In contrast, fetal breathing was positively correlated with gestational age, the greatest increase in breathing occurring between 26 and 32 weeks' gestation. This was the result of both an increase in the number and duration of episodes. From the time that rest-activity cycles of behaviour could be determined in recordings, both breathing and hiccups were dependent on behavioural state or cycle, occurring predominantly during active episodes. This association between quiet and active behaviour and breathing did not alter with increasing gestational age, and the variables in fetal behavioural state became increasingly closely linked. The importance of prolonged and repeated recording, and also the need to take account of other variables in fetal behaviour, before any sinister conclusions can be drawn about the absence of fetal breathing is emphasised.

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