A prospective study was conducted to identify the pattern and aetiology of kidney disease in children living in eastern Libya. A total of 343 patients was studied, representing 3% of annual admissions to the children's hospital. The major renal diseases were post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (in 116), acute renal failure (in 93), and idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (in 65). Less common diseases were tubular transport defect (in 3) and end-stage renal disease (in 3). The mortality rate (excluding neonates) was below 1%. The pattern of kidney disease referred to this hospital in Libya was different from that reported in other parts of Africa.
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