In a controlled trial, symptomatic treatment alone, or 12 weeks of cyclophosphamide or azathioprine were compared in Nigerian children with nephrotic syndrome (mainly quartan malarial nephropathy) and poorly selective proteinuria. Full remission in 2 patients in each of the two groups treated with drugs, and diminution of proteinuria in most patients in the cyclophosphamide group showed possible evidence of benefit. Infections during treatment were significantly more common in the drug-treated groups but were controllable. Mortality from renal failure in the 2nd year after treatment was significantly greater in the azathioprine-treated group than in the other two, suggesting that the drug may have exacerbated the nephritis. The 5-year survival rate was similar in the cyclophosphamide and the control group.
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