In a family and epidemiological survey of 66 cases of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita all cases were found to be sporadic and no family association with clubfoot, congenital dislocation of the hip, or hereditary neuromuscular disease was found. The mothers were significantly older than average. Oligohydramnios was noted in only one-third of cases but many other complications of pregnancy, including probable attempts at abortion, had occurred. It is likely that most cases of arthrogryposis are nongenetic and result from a defective intrauterine environment, whether hormonal, vascular, mechanical, or possibly infective.
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