Ninety-seven Nigerian children under 5 years of age had typhoid or paratyphoid fever proved by blood culture. The presented with fever, anaemia, gastrointestinal or neurological disturbances, and typhoid and paratyphoid appeared clinically indistinguishible. In this holoendemic malarial area, malaria was the most important differential diagnosis, and may have contributed to the concomitant anaemia seen in the majority of patients. Despite vigorous therapy with chloramphenicol or trimethoxazole, and blood transfusion where indicated, the mortality in both typhoid and paratyphoid was high (18% in both groups).
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