Radiologically diagnosed rickets was found to be common in children of the poorer classes in Tehran. It was frequently associated with gastroenteritis or bronchopneumonia and a large proportion of the children were severely underweight for their age. In children below the age of 1 year malnutrition tended to mask the signs of rickets. Convulsions were much less frequent in the malnourished children; the concentration of calcium in the serum was higher and that of alkaline phosphatase was lower than in those who were well nourished. Biochemistry is of little value in the diagnosis of rickets in the presence of malnutrition.
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