Fifty children now aged 4 to 8 years who required artificial ventilation for respiratory failure in the neonatal period were followed up; 44 (88%) had no serious mental or physical handicap. 35 of the ventilated infants were matched with paired controls who had also had respiratory distress but had not required artificial ventilation. Detailed studies of growth, respiratory and neurological function, and psychological testing revealed only minor differences between the two groups. It is concluded that the quality of survival after artificial ventilation of the newborn justifies the procedure.
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