A retrospective review of 138 cases of hypertension in Nigerian children attending the University College Hospital, Ibadan, during a 9-year period was undertaken. The main findings were (a) that hypertension occurs more commonly in children aged 5 to 10 years and is seen in both sexes; (b) that nephrotic syndrome is the most frequent clinical condition associated with hypertension in these children; (c) that glomerulonephritis is the most frequent histological finding at biopsy or necropsy; (d) that unlike the experience in Europe and America, pyelonephritis is not a major cause of hypertension in Nigerian children; (e) that the course of hypertension in the majority of the children is rapidly progressive and prognosis is poor.
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