A study was made of the incidence of types of chronic chest disorder in aboriginal children. A high incidence was found, and 83 children with bronchiectasis and 35 with chronic bronchitis are described. All developed the disease at an early age, but, apart from bronchiolitis with dehydration, no specific aetiological factor could be found; tuberculosis, pertussis, and measles, in particular, have been virtually eradicated from this child population. The diseases described flourish in inferior social circumstances, respond to care in good circumstances, but deteriorate again when the children go home. Medical improvement is not maintained unless social circumstances are ameliorated.
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