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The Normal Borders of the Liver in Infancy and Childhood
  1. D. Deligeorgis,
  2. D. Yannakos,
  3. P. Panayotou,
  4. S. Doxiadis

    Clinical and X-ray Study


    In 365 healthy infants and children the normal range of the liver borders was defined by clinical and x-ray examination. It was found that in supine position and at the end of expiration the liver edge projects considerably below the costal margin in newborns and infants, and as the age increases the liver edge approaches the costal margin. In a considerable number of infants up to 6 months, the liver edge projects 3·0 to 3·5 cm. In children 10 to 16 years, the liver edge usually projects no more than 1 cm., though in occasional cases as much as 2 cm. below the costal margin. The clinical and x-ray examinations were in agreement in 95% of the cases.

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    Clinical and X-ray Study