Cardiac output monitoring enables physiology-directed management of critically ill children and aids in the early detection of clinical deterioration. Multiple invasive techniques have been developed and have demonstrated ability to improve clinical outcomes. However, all require invasive arterial or venous catheters, with associated risks of infection, thrombosis and vascular injury. Non-invasive monitoring of cardiac output and fluid responsiveness in infants and children is an active area of interest and several proven techniques are available. Novel non-invasive cardiac output monitors offer a promising alternative to echocardiography and have proven their ability to influence clinical practice. Assessment of perfusion remains a challenge; however, technologies such as near-infrared spectroscopy and photoplethysmography may prove valuable clinical adjuncts in the future.
- Intensive Care Units, Paediatric
Data availability statement
Data sharing not applicable as no datasets generated and/or analysed for this study. No data are available.
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Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.