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We now have a culture-free reference standard for identifying bacterial presence in clinical specimens; the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene PCR sequencing process. The 16 s rRNA gene has a unique structure and can help classify bacteria from genus down to phylum levels. Traditionally, diagnosing urine infections starts with linking the symptoms to the urine sample dipstick testing (looking especially for leukocytes and nitrites), microscopy and then urine culture. Interpreting the results depend on the type of urine sample obtained (bag, clean catch, catheter sample or suprapubic aspiration (SPA)), evidence of an inflammatory response in the urine dipstick …
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