Aim This systematic review (SR) was undertaken to identify and summarise any factors which influence the implementation of paediatric clinical pharmacy service (CPS) from service users’ perspectives in hospital settings.
Method Literature search from EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science (Core Collection), Cochrane Library, Scopus and CINAHL databases were performed in order to identify any relevant peer-reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies from inception until October 2019 by following the inclusion criteria. Boolean search operators were used which consisted of service, patient subgroup and attribute domains. Studies were screened independently and included studies were quality assessed using Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). The study was reported against the ‘Enhancing transparency in reporting the synthesis of qualitative research’ (ENTREQ) statement.
Results 4199 citations were screened by title and abstract and 6 of 32 full publications screened were included. There were 2 studies that were graded as ‘high’ in quality, with 4 graded as ‘moderate’. The analysis has led to the identification of 7 factors categorised in 5 pre-determined over-arching themes. These were: other healthcare professionals’ attitudes and acceptance; availability of clinical pharmacist on ward or outpatient settings; utilising drug-related knowledge to perform clinical activities; resources for service provision and coverage; involvement in a multidisciplinary team; training in the highly specialised areas; and development of communication skills.
Conclusion Evidence for paediatric CPS was sparse in comparison to a similar SR conducted in the adult population. An extensive knowledge gap within this area of practice has therefore been identified. Nevertheless, majority of the factors identified were viewed as facilitators which enabled a successful implementation of CPS in paediatrics. Further research is needed to identify more factors and exploration of these would be necessary to provide a strong foundation for strategic planning for paediatric CPS implementation and development.
Bhatt-Mehta V, Buck ML, Chung AM, et al. Recommendations for meeting the pediatric patient’s need for a clinical pharmacist: a joint opinion of the paediatrics practice and research network of the American college of clinical pharmacy and the pediatric pharmacy advocacy group. Pharmacotherapy 2013;33:243-251.
Rishoej RM, Nielsen HL, Strzelec SM, et al. Qualitative exploration of practices to prevent medication errors in neonatal intensive care units: a focus group study. Ther Adv Drug Saf 2018;9:343-353.
Willmeroth T, Wesselborg B, Kuske S. Implementation outcomes and indicators as a new challenge in health services research: a systematic scoping review. Inquiry 2019;56:1-17.
Onozato T, Francisca Dose Santos Cruz C, Milhome da Costa Farre AG, et al. Factors influencing the implementation of clinical pharmacy services for hospitalized patients: a mixed-methods systematic review. Res Social Adm Pharm 2020;16:437-449.
Statistics from Altmetric.com
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.