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Has the HPV immunization program been effective?

The human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization program was introduced to UK in 2008, focusing on 12-13 year old girls, initially with a catch up program for 14-18 year old girls between 2008 and 2010. Has there been an impact of cervical carcinoma in situ? Falcaro M et al [Lancet 2021; 398(10316):2084-2092.] have reported the results of an observational study looking at data from a total of 13·7 million-years of follow-up of women aged 20 years to younger than 30 years. They have examined the grade 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN3) registrations as the primary outcome of interest to estimate the relative risk of cervical cancer in three vaccinated cohorts compared with earlier cohorts that were not eligible for HPV vaccination. These are data from a population-based cancer registry examining the diagnoses of cervical cancer and CIN3 from Jan 1, 2006 to June 30, 2019 in women aged 20–64 years and who were a resident in England. The estimated relative reduction in cervical cancer rates by age at vaccine offer were 34% (95% CI 25–41) for age 16–18 years (school year 12–13), 62% (52–71) for age 14–16 years (school year 10–11), and 87% (72–94) for age 12–13 years …

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