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Compatibility of pentoxifylline and parenteral medications
  1. Anna L Campbell1,
  2. Michael Petrovski2,
  3. SMDK Ganga Senarathna1,
  4. Nabeelah Mukadam2,
  5. Tobias Strunk3,4,
  6. Kevin T Batty1
  1. 1 School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  2. 2 Pharmacy Department, King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women, Subiaco, Western Australia, Australia
  3. 3 Neonatal Directorate, King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women, Subiaco, Western Australia, Australia
  4. 4 Centre for Neonatal Research and Education, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Dr Kevin T Batty, School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, Curtin University, Bentley WA 6102, Australia; kevin.batty{at}


Objective To investigate the physical and chemical compatibility of pentoxifylline (PTX) with a range of parenteral medications used in neonatal intensive care.

Design PTX and drug solutions were combined in glass vials, inspected for physical incompatibility and evaluated on the basis of PTX concentrations for chemical compatibility.

Results No precipitation, colour change or turbidity was observed in any of the test mixtures. The PTX concentration was approximately 5.5% lower when combined with undiluted calcium gluconate injection (100 mg/mL). The PTX concentration ratios for all other combinations, including diluted calcium gluconate injection (50 mg/mL), were in the range of 99.5%–102%.

Conclusion In simulated Y-site conditions, PTX was found to be compatible with 15 parenteral medications and six total parenteral nutrition solutions. Based on PTX concentration tests, it would be prudent to avoid mixing PTX with undiluted calcium gluconate injection.

  • NEonatology
  • pentoxifylline
  • intravenous drugs
  • parenteral nutrition
  • pharmaceutical compatibility

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  • Contributors MP, KTB, TS and ALC conceived and designed the study. ALC had principal responsibility for acquiring the data and was supported by KTB, GS and NM. KTB conducted initial analysis and interpretation of the data, with advice from MP, TS, ALC and GS. KTB and ALC prepared the first draft of the manuscript; revision and additional contributions to the manuscript were provided by all authors. All authors approved the final manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.