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Paediatric snakebite envenoming: the world’s most neglected ‘Neglected Tropical Disease’?
  1. Sophie Pach1,
  2. Jacqueline Le Geyt2,
  3. José María Gutiérrez3,
  4. David Williams4,
  5. Kalana Prasad Maduwage5,
  6. Abdulrazaq Garba Habib6,
  7. Rafael Gustin7,
  8. María Luisa Avila-Agüero8,9,
  9. Kyaw Thu Ya10,
  10. Jay Halbert11
  1. 1 General Medicine, Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK
  2. 2 Department of Paediatric Emergency Medicine, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK
  3. 3 Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
  4. 4 Not applicable, West Wallsend, New South Wales, Australia
  5. 5 Department of Biochemistry, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya Central, Sri Lanka
  6. 6 African Center of Excellence on Population Health and Policy, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
  7. 7 Pediatrics, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Peru
  8. 8 Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Hospital Nacional de Niños, San José, Costa Rica
  9. 9 Center for Infectious Disease Modeling and Analysis, Yale University School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
  10. 10 Paediatric Nephrology, Mandalay Children's Hospital, Mandalay, Myanmar
  11. 11 Paediatrics, Royal London Hospital, London, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Jay Halbert, Paediatrics, Royal London Hospital, London E1 1FR, UK; j.halbert{at}


Snakebite disproportionally affects children living in impoverished rural communities. The WHO has recently reinstated snakebites on its list of Neglected Tropical Diseases and launched a comprehensive Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Snakebite Envenoming. In the first of a two paper series, we describe the epidemiology, socioeconomic impact and key prevention strategies. We also explore current challenges and priorities including the production and distribution of safe and effective antivenom.

  • toxicology
  • epidemiology
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  • SP and JLG are Co-first authors.

  • Twitter @maluavi,

  • Contributors The idea for this paper was formulated by the lead author JH. All coauthors were involved in the design of the paper. An initial literature review was performed by JH and then further updated by all coauthors. The first draft of the paper was written by SP, JLG and JH. This was then reviewed and revised by all coauthors.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Obtained.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement There are no data in this work.

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