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Improved survival of children with life-threatening conditions has resulted in more children in need of caregiving support. For example, a child assisted by medical technology may need constant monitoring of a tracheostomy at home, often a role taken on by parents. Increased caregiving is also required for children with certain developmental or psychiatric conditions that have self-injurious or high-risk behaviours.
Risks for the caregivers
Caregiving for a child with high needs can be a fulfilling experience, but can also pose substantial risks of burnout as well as poor mental and physical health. Caregivers face increased stress, financial burden and sometimes stigma and social isolation. Those stressors may increase the likelihood of depression and anxiety, as well as of premature maternal cardiovascular disease and mortality.1
Implications for child health
Even if caregivers do not meet criteria for a mental illness but are struggling with high emotional distress, their parenting skills and ability to promote secure attachment may be affected. Children of parents with mental illness have elevated risk for poor growth, feeding difficulties, depression, behavioural challenges and poor learning.2 A child with a disability and high needs may be even more susceptible to these detrimental effects. Some adverse outcomes may be reversible with support for the caregiver. For example, therapy for depressed mothers has been reported to improve the child’s mental health, social and academic functioning and the mother–child interaction.3 4 Likewise, children exposed to adverse experiences—most commonly parental mental illness—have been shown to have improved language and behaviour, decreased injuries and more uptake of immunisation …
Contributors BR and EC conceived and designed the study. BR drafted the manuscript with support from JW, JO, NRS and EC. All authors provided critical feedback on the manuscript and analysis. All authors approved the final manuscript.
Funding Eyal Cohen is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (FDN-143315). The opinions in this article are those of the authors and independent from all funding sources.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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