Background Over the years pigs were promoted as potential animal model for humans due to their high degree of anatomical and physiological similarities with humans. Gasthuys et al. demonstrated that the maturation of the kidney function in terms of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in growing pigs was comparable to humans, but no data are currently available on renal plasma flow, renal tubular secretion and reabsorption.1 The aim of this pilot study was to unravel the contribution of distinct renal elimination processes in juvenile pigs and to compare with reported human values.
Methods Eight seven-week-old pigs were intravenously administered a single bolus of a cocktail of following renal markers: iohexol (64.7 mg/kg body weight (BW), GFR), para-aminohippuric acid (PAH, 10 mg/kg BW, effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and anion secretion), pindolol (0.05 mg/kg BW, cation secretion) and fluconazole (0.5 mg/kg, tubular reabsorption). Plasma and urinary concentrations were determined for PAH, pindolol and fluconazole at several time points. Only plasma concentrations were assessed for iohexol. PK modelling was performed with Phoenix® WinNonlin®.
Results The clearance of iohexol was 97.9 ± 16.1 ml/min/m² (mean ± SD). The ERPF, calculated as the renal clearance of PAH, was 9.5 ± 2.1 ml/min/kg. These GFR and ERPF values are approximately a factor 1.3 higher than the values observed in humans, namely 63.5–75.0 mL/min/m² and 6.5 ± 2.0 mL/min/kg.2,3 The net tubular secretion of PAH was 5.4 ± 1.8 mL/min/kg, which was comparable with the values obtained in humans (5.0 ± 1.8 mL/min/kg).3 Results for cation secretion and tubular reabsorption are not yet available (to be presented at the congress).
Conclusion The net tubular secretion of PAH was comparable between the juvenile pigs and humans. The GFR and ERPF were generally a factor 1.3 higher in juvenile pigs compared to humans.
Gasthuys E., et al., Postnatal maturation of the glomerular filtration rate in conventional growing piglets as potential juvenile animal model for preclinical pharmaceutical research. Frontiers in Pharmacology 2017. 8.
Schwartz GJ, Furth SL. Glomerular filtration rate measurement and estimation in chronic kidney disease. Pediatric Nephrology 2007;22(11):1839–1848.
Gross AS, et al., Simultaneous administration of a cocktail of markers to measure renal drug elimination pathways: absence of a pharmacokinetic interaction between fluconazole and sinistrin, p-aminohippuric acid and pindolol. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2001. 51(6):547–555.
Disclosure(s) This study was funded by the Special Research Fund of Ghent University (BOF16/DOC/285).
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