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Framework to help design and review research involving children
  1. Bob Phillips1,2,
  2. Hugh T Davies3,
  3. Jennifer Preston4,
  4. Simon R Stones5
  1. 1 Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, York, UK
  2. 2 Health Research Authority, London, UK
  3. 3 Department of Paediatric Oncology, Leeds Children’s Hospital, Leeds, UK
  4. 4 NIHR Alder Hey Clinical Research Facility, Alder Hey Children’s NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK
  5. 5 School of Healthcare, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Bob Phillips, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK; bob.phillips{at}


This is the third of a series of four articles addressing ethical approaches and issues in undertaking clinical research with children and young people (CYP). This paper addresses the major ethical aspects of studies with CYP, where they vary from studies in adults.

  • ethics
  • health services research

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  • Contributors HTD, BP, JP and SRS all designed and debated on the series of articles, made editorial comments, and assure the validity of the content. BP drafted this article initially, with comments and involvement from all authors.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors. RSP is funded with an NIHR Post-doctoral Fellowship (10872)

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.