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Paediatric heart transplantation: an update
  1. Zdenka Reinhardt
  1. Correspondence to Dr Zdenka Reinhardt, Paediatric Cardiology, The Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne NE7 7DN, UK; Zdenka.Reinhardt{at}


Heart transplantation is a standard treatment for selected paediatric patients with end-stage heart disease. With improvement in surgical techniques, organ procurement and preservation strategies, immunosuppressive drugs, and more sophisticated monitoring strategies, survival following transplantation has increased over time. However, rejection, infection, renal failure, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease and post-transplant cardiac allograft vasculopathy still preclude long-term survival. Therefore, continued multidisciplinary scientific efforts are needed for future gains. This review focuses on the current status, outcomes and ongoing challenges including patient selection, indications and contraindications, national and international survivals, post-transplant complications and quality of life.

  • paediatric heart transplantation
  • rejection
  • heart failure
  • PTLD
  • CAV

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  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement The data used in the manuscript are readily available on ISHLT, PHTS, NHSBT.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

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