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A 4-year-old boy was referred with recurrent pneumonia and aspiration of liquids. Clinical examination, complete blood count and sweat test were normal. A tracheo-oesophageal fistula (TEF) was suspected as a differential diagnosis. Barium swallow was unremarkable. Tracheoscopy showed a small mucous irregularity on the posterior wall, but intra-oesophageal instillation of methylene blue was not perceived in the trachea. Tracheoscopy was interrupted prematurely due to poor respiratory tolerance. Finally, chest CT scan showed a millimetre-wide TEF originating from the trachea …
Contributors AH: drafted the initial manuscript and approved the final manuscript as submitted. CD-L: reviewed and revised the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript as submitted. JR: supervised data collection, critically reviewed the manuscript and approved the final manuscript as submitted. TP: performed surgical treatment and approved the final manuscript as submitted. PR: reviewed the manuscript and approved the final manuscript as submitted.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent Parental/guardian consent obtained.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.