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Infant feeding practices among HIV-exposed infants less than 6 months of age in Bomet County, Kenya: an in-depth qualitative study of feeding choices
  1. Purity Chepkorir Lang’at1,2,
  2. Irene Ogada1,
  3. Audrey Steenbeek3,
  4. Noni E MacDonald4,
  5. Sophie Ochola1,
  6. Wesley Bor2,
  7. Godfrey Odinga5
  1. 1 Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Applied Human Sciences, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya
  2. 2 Department of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Medicine and Health sciences, Kabarak University, Nakuru, Kenya
  3. 3 Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, School of Nursing, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
  4. 4 Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, MicroResearch International, Dalhousie University and IWK Health Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
  5. 5 Department of Tourism Management, School of Tourism, Hospitality and Events Management, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya
  1. Correspondence to Miss Purity Chepkorir Lang’at, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Kabarak University, Nakuru, Kenya; lapuritie{at}


Background In children, HIV can be acquired from the mother during pregnancy, delivery and through breast milk. The WHO recommends exclusive breast feeding or exclusive replacement feeding for the first 6 months after birth for HIV-exposed infants. Barriers such as HIV-related stigma, inadequate resources, lack of access to safe water and negative cultural beliefs have been shown to influence infant feeding among HIV-exposed infants in some settings. In Kenya, there is limited literature on the barriers. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to optimal feeding among HIV-exposed infants 0–5 months of age attending a mission hospital in Bomet County, Kenya.

Methods A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted at a referral mission hospital in Bomet County, Southwest Kenya. Four focused group discussions were conducted among mothers/caregivers of HIV-exposed infants aged 0–5 months in accordance with their infant feeding practices, while two key informant interviews were also held with healthcare workers. All sessions were audio recorded and later transcribed verbatim. Content analysis was performed, and conclusions were made based on identified themes.

Results Factors influencing the infant feeding choices were: financial constraints, cultural beliefs and practices, HIV-related stigma and conflicting knowledge among mothers/caregivers and healthcare workers on the recommendations for feeding HIV-exposed infants 0–5 months of age.

Conclusions Health worker retraining in and reinforcement of WHO guidance on feeding HIV exposed/infected infants will clarify misconceptions around feeding HIV exposed/infected infants, though there remain social and economic barriers to full implementation.

  • Hiv-exposed
  • infant feeding
  • optimal infant feeding
  • barriers to optimal infant feeding

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  • Contributors PCL: initiation of the study, design, implementation and writing. IO: design, implementation, analysis and writing. AS: implementation and cowriting. NEM, SO, WB and GO: critique and writing.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Ethics approval Ethical clearance was obtained from Kenyatta University Ethical Review Committee (PKU/381/E33), Tenwek Institution Research Committee and the National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation Kenya (NACOSTI/P/15/6639/8070).

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.