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Seo et al. conducted a prospective study to identify factors for cardiovascular disease risk factor clustering (CVD-RFC) in adolescents (1). A total of 1309 children aged 6-15 years were enrolled, and higher household income was a significant predictor of lower CVD-RFC incidence with dose-response relationship. In contrast, the presence of parental CVD history, overweight or obesity, and shorter sleep duration were significant predictors of higher CVD-RFC incidence. I have some comments with special reference to socioeconomic status (SES) and metabolic components.
First, Iguacel et al. investigated the association between socioeconomic disadvantages and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children (2). By adjusting diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviours and well-being, standardized multiple regression coefficients (99% confidence intervals [CI]) of children from low-income families, non-traditional families, with parents of unemployment, and accumulation of >3 socioeconomic disadvantages for a higher MetS score were 0.20 (0.03-0.37), 0.14 (0.02-0.26), 0.31 (0.05-0.57), 0.21 (0.04-0.37), respectively. These data present that low SES was closely associated with MetS in children, which was in concordance with data by Seo et al (1).
Second, Patel et al. examined the association between parental socioeconomic position (SEP) and early-life offspring body mass index (BMI) in children (3). Adjusted difference of BMI z-score (95% CI) was 0.08 (0-0.16) among girls...
Second, Patel et al. examined the association between parental socioeconomic position (SEP) and early-life offspring body mass index (BMI) in children (3). Adjusted difference of BMI z-score (95% CI) was 0.08 (0-0.16) among girls and 0.16 (0.07-0.24) among boys, and they concluded that higher SEP was associated with greater BMI trajectories in both sexes. In contrast, Oddo and Jones-Smith investigated the association between the change of family income and the change of BMI z-score in children (4). The poverty to family income ratio (PIR) and the increase in PIR were significantly associated with decrease in BMI z-score only among girls. Seo et al. did not recognize significant sex difference, but they presented 10% decrease of CVD-RFC in girls. Sex difference should be specified by further study.
Finally, Lee et al. investigate the relationship between SES and obesity in children (5). They used education and income as an indicator of SES, and SES was not a significant indicator for childhood obesity. In contrast, childhood obesity was positively associated with maternal overweight, maternal obesity and paternal obesity. SES had a smaller impact than parental obesity on childhood obesity. Relating to this report, Andrea et al. conducted a systematic review concerning the effect of early life growth (0-24 months of age) on later obesity (>24 months) by considering race/ethnicity and SES (6). They recognized that the positive association was predominant in populations of racial/ethnic minority. A comprehensive analysis is needed to identify the association between SES and CVD-RFC.
1 Seo YG, Choi MK, Kang JH, et al. Cardiovascular disease risk factor clustering in children and adolescents: a prospective cohort study. Arch Dis Child 2018;103:968-73
2 Iguacel I, Michels N, Ahrens W, et al. Prospective associations between socioeconomically disadvantaged groups and metabolic syndrome risk in European children. Results from the IDEFICS study. Int J Cardiol 2018:272 :333-40.
3 Patel R, Tilling K, Lawlor DA, et al. Socioeconomic differences in childhood BMI trajectories in Belarus. Int J Obes (Lond) 2018:42:1651-60.
4 Oddo VM, Jones-Smith JC. Gains in income during early childhood are associated with decreases in BMI z scores among children in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr 2015;101:1225-31.
5 Lee HJ, Kim SH, Choi SH, et al. The Association between socioeconomic status and obesity in Korean children: An analysis of the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012). Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr 2017;20:186-93.
6 Andrea SB, Hooker ER, Messer LC, et al. Does the association between early life growth and later obesity differ by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status? A systematic review. Ann Epidemiol 2017;27:583-92.e5.