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Cardiovascular disease risk factor clustering in children and adolescents: a prospective cohort study
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    Socioeconomic status and risk of cardiovascular disease in childhood

    Seo et al. conducted a prospective study to identify factors for cardiovascular disease risk factor clustering (CVD-RFC) in adolescents (1). A total of 1309 children aged 6-15 years were enrolled, and higher household income was a significant predictor of lower CVD-RFC incidence with dose-response relationship. In contrast, the presence of parental CVD history, overweight or obesity, and shorter sleep duration were significant predictors of higher CVD-RFC incidence. I have some comments with special reference to socioeconomic status (SES) and metabolic components.

    First, Iguacel et al. investigated the association between socioeconomic disadvantages and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children (2). By adjusting diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviours and well-being, standardized multiple regression coefficients (99% confidence intervals [CI]) of children from low-income families, non-traditional families, with parents of unemployment, and accumulation of >3 socioeconomic disadvantages for a higher MetS score were 0.20 (0.03-0.37), 0.14 (0.02-0.26), 0.31 (0.05-0.57), 0.21 (0.04-0.37), respectively. These data present that low SES was closely associated with MetS in children, which was in concordance with data by Seo et al (1).

    Second, Patel et al. examined the association between parental socioeconomic position (SEP) and early-life offspring body mass index (BMI) in children (3). Adjusted difference of BMI z-score (95% CI) was 0.08 (0-0.16) among girls...

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    Conflict of Interest:
    None declared.