Objective The early identification of predictors related to cardiovascular disease risk factor clustering (CVD-RFC) can help prevent chronic disease. We aimed to identify the risk factors for CVD-RFC in adolescents.
Methods A prospective longitudinal cohort study design was used to obtain data included in these analyses from school-aged children who participated in the Korean Child-Adolescent Study 2008–2014. A total of 1309 children aged 6–15 years were enrolled. We compared the participants based on the presence or absence of CVD-RFC and examined the cumulative incidence of CVD-RFC.
Results Of the total 1309 children, 410 (31.32%) had CVD-RFC in adolescence. A higher average household income ≥3 million Korean Republic won (KRW)/month (3–5 million KRW/month: HR 0.75 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.97); ≥5 million KRW/month: HR 0.58 (95% CI 0.44 to 0.77)) was associated with a lower CVD-RFC incidence, while the presence of parental CVD history (HR 1.28 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.57)), overweight or obesity (HR 3.83 (95% CI 3.05 to 4.80)) and shorter sleep duration of 8–9 hour/day (HR 1.80 (95% CI 1.05 to 3.07)) and <8 hour/day (HR 1.93 (95% CI 1.11 to 3.34)) had higher CVD-RFC incidences.
Conclusions Obesity in childhood, short sleep duration and parental factors such as low socioeconomic status and parental history of CVD are significant risk factors for the development of CVD-RFC in adolescents. Efforts to create awareness regarding sufficient sleep duration in children via intervention programmes targeting cardiometabolic health in children and special attention to lifestyle modifications and socioeconomic components of the family should be considered.
- cardiovascular disease risk factor clustering
- cardiometabolic health
- metabolic syndrome
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M-KC and KHP contributed equally.
Contributors Y-GS, M-KC and KHP wrote the manuscript, analysed the data, interpreted the results. Y-GS, M-KC, J-HK, YSJ and KHP participated in the design of the study. Y-GS, M-KC, J-HK, H-JL, HBJ, SIP and KHP participated in the collection of data. All authors reviewed the manuscript, contributed to the discussion and read and approved the final manuscript.
Funding This work was supported by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (grant numbers 2008-E64001-00, 2009-E64001-00, 2010-E64001-00, 2011-E64001-00, 2012-E64001-00, 2013-E64001-00, 2014-ER6401-00) and Hallym University Research Fund (grant number HURF-2014-33).
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent Obtained.
Ethics approval Institutional review boards of the Seoul-Paik Hospital, the Inje University, and the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (IRB number: IIT-2009–071, IIT-2010–052, IIT-2011–058, IIT-2012–092, IIT-2013–078, IIT-2014–143).
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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