Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Hepatitis B: changing epidemiology and interventions
  1. Pilar Nannini,
  2. Etienne M Sokal
  1. Université Catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires St Luc, Service de Gastroentérologie et Hépatologie Pédiatrique, Brussels, Belgium
  1. Correspondence to Professor Etienne M Sokal, Université Catholique de Louvain, Cliniques. Universitaires St Luc, Service de Gastroentérologie et Hépatologie Pédiatrique, Avenue Hippocrate 10, Brussels 1200, Belgium; etienne.sokal{at}


Hepatitis B virus infection is still a major public health problem worldwide, since more than 350 million people have chronic, lifelong infection and nearly 1 million deaths occur each year owing to complications. Most infections are acquired at birth or during early childhood. Nowadays, low- and middle-income countries bear the majority of the burden of hepatitis B-related liver cancer deaths despite the availability of an effective vaccine and antiviral treatments. In this review the epidemiology, strategies of prevention and the recent advances in therapy, genotype diversity and resistance are discussed.

  • Hepatitis B
  • HBV
  • Epidemiology
  • HBV resistance
  • children

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Twitter Follow Etienne Sokal @ESokal

  • Contributors PN wrote the first draft of the manuscript, EMS supervised and contributed to subsequent drafts.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

Linked Articles

  • Atoms
    Martin Ward Platt