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In May 2004, eight new member states (A8) joined the European Union (EU), broadening the free movement of people to include more of Eastern Europe.1 The 2011 census for Southampton city reported a 212% rise in numbers of residents from EU accession countries since 2001. Of 11 370 immigrants, 8391 were Polish-born, making up 3.5% of total city residents. The Polish-born population of the UK increased from 75 000 in 2003 to an estimated 831 000 in 2015. Poland has overtaken India and is the single largest foreign national group resident in the UK …
Contributors JJ did the main data collection and manuscript writing. AA and NMPC edited the manuscript. NMPC conceived the concept.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data sharing statement The data collected have been presented in this letter.
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