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Prevalence, repairs and complications of hypospadias: an Australian population-based study
  1. Francisco Javier Schneuer1,
  2. Andrew J A Holland2,
  3. Gavin Pereira3,
  4. Carol Bower4,
  5. Natasha Nassar1
  1. 1Clinical and Population Perinatal Health Research, Kolling Institute of Medical Research, The University of Sydney, St. Leonards, New South Wales, Australia
  2. 2Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia
  3. 3Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric, and Environmental Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
  4. 4Telethon Kids Institute, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Dr Francisco Schneuer, Clinical and Population Perinatal Health Research, Kolling Institute of Medical Research, The University of Sydney, Building 52, Royal North Shore Hospital, St. Leonards, NSW 2065, Australia; francisco.schneuer{at}


Objective To investigate hypospadias’ prevalence and trends, rate of surgical repairs and post-repair complications in an Australian population.

Methods Hypospadias cases were identified from all live-born infants in New South Wales, Australia, during the period 2001–2010, using routinely collected birth and hospital data. Prevalence, trends, surgical procedures or repairs, hospital admissions and complications following surgery were evaluated. Risk factors for reoperation and complications were assessed using multivariate logistic regression.

Results There were 3186 boys with hypospadias in 2001–2010. Overall prevalence was 35.1 per 10 000 live births and remained constant during the study period. Proportions of anterior, middle, proximal and unspecified hypospadias were 41.3%, 26.2%, 5.8% and 26.6%, respectively. Surgical procedures were performed in 1945 boys (61%), with 1718 primary repairs. The overall post-surgery complication rate involving fistulas or strictures was 13%, but higher (33%) for proximal cases. Complications occurred after 1 year post-repair in 52.3% of cases and up to 5 years. Boys with proximal or middle hypospadias were at increased risk of reoperation or complications, but age at primary repair did not affect the outcome.

Conclusion One in 285 infants were affected with hypospadias, 60% required surgical repair or correction and one in eight experienced complications. The frequency of late complications would suggest that clinical review should be maintained for >1 year post-repair.

  • Congenital Abnorm
  • Epidemiology
  • Paediatric Surgery

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