Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the study sample

CHDControls
DemographicsInfantsToddlersInfantsToddlers
n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)
All427 (85.6)72 (14.4)302 (48.1)326 (51.9)
Gender
 Male239 (56.0)40 (55.6)159 (52.6)180 (55.2)
 Female188 (44.0)32 (44.4)143 (47.4)146 (44.8)
Domicile
 Urban98 (23.0)18 (25.0)210 (69.5)226 (69.3)
 Rural329 (77.0)54 (75.0)92 (30.5)100 (30.7)
Socioeconomic class*
 Upper24 (5.6)4 (5.6)79 (26.2)90 (27.6)
 Upper middle231 (54.1)32 (44.4)140 (46.4)137 (42.0)
 Lower middle121 (28.3)27 (37.5)63 (20.9)74 (22.7)
 Upper lower51 (11.9)9 (12.5)11 (3.6)20 (6.1)
 Lower –9 (3.0)5 (1.5)
Functional class categories
Acyanotic heart disease
 LRS170 (39.8)27 (37.5) – –
 LSOL32 (7.5)2 (2.8) – –
Cyanotic heart disease
 DPB71 (16.6)25 (34.7) – –
 IPB123 (28.8)14 (19.4) – –
 SVP19 (4.4)3 (4.2) – –
 Others12 (2.8)1 (1.4) – –
  • *Socioeconomic class was defined by modified Kuppuswamy Socioeconomic Scale (2012).8

  • CHD, congenital heart disease; DPB, decreased pulmonary blood flow; IPB, increased pulmonary blood flow; LRS, left to right shunts; LSOL, left-sided obstructive lesions; SVP, single ventricle physiology.