Table 2

ORs (95% CIs) for the association between parental absence before age 7 and smoking and alcohol consumption at age 11

Model 1 (crude association)Model 2 (multivariable adjusted*)
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Smoked by age 11
All children (n=10 940)
Parental absence
NoReferenceReference
Yes2.58 (1.88 to 3.56)1.54 (1.07 to 2.20)
Children who experienced parental absence (n=2635)
Age at parental absence
Birth to 9 monthsReferenceReference
9 months–3 years1.46 (0.57 to 3.72)1.57 (0.59 to 4.19)
3–5 years2.03 (0.77 to 5.37)2.64 (0.95 to 7.31)
5–7 years1.75 (0.65 to 4.69)2.57 (0.90 to 7.39)
Which parent absent
FatherReferenceReference
Mother0.32 (0.05 to 2.06)0.31 (0.05 to 2.14)
Mother and father0.80 (0.17 to 3.70)0.72 (0.16 to 3.22)
Reason for absence
Death0.97 (0.28 to 3.41)1.00 (0.27 to 3.72)
Other reasonReferenceReference
Drank alcohol by age 11
All children (n=10 940)
Parental absence
NoReferenceReference
Yes1.46 (1.25 to 1.72)1.27 (1.06 to 1.53)
Children who experienced parental absence (n=2635)
Age at parental absence
Birth to 9 monthsReferenceReference
9 months–3 years1.59 (0.87 to 2.91)1.57 (0.84 to 2.93)
3–5 years1.38 (0.76 to 2.50)1.39 (0.74 to 2.60)
5–7 years1.22 (0.64 to 2.32)1.26 (0.64 to 2.46)
Which parent absent
FatherReferenceReference
Mother0.63 (0.24 to 1.66)0.61 (0.23 to 1.58)
Mother and father1.47 (0.57 to 3.80)1.54 (0.59 to 4.01)
Reason for absence
Death0.28 (0.08 to 0.91)0.29 (0.09 to 0.94)
Other reasonReferenceReference
Drunk enough to feel drunk by age 11
All children (n=10 940)
Parental absence
NoReferenceReference
Yes2.19 (1.32 to 3.63)1.75 (0.99 to 3.10)
Children who experienced parental absence (n=2635)
Age at parental absence
Birth to 9 monthsReferenceReference
9 months–3 years2.22 (0.57 to 8.59)1.20 (0.30 to 4.86)
3–5 years1.63 (0.38 to 6.94)2.31 (0.59 to 9.07)
5–7 years2.04 (0.42 to 9.84)1.87 (0.44 to 7.91)
Which parent absent
FatherReferenceReference
Mother0.88 (0.10 to 7.88)1.10 (0.11 to 11.08)
Mother and fatherNot estimatedNot estimated
Reason for absence
Death12.46 (1.62 to 96.17)12.37 (1.56 to 98.43)
Other reasonReferenceReference
• *Adjusted for maternal age at birth, gestational age, maternal smoking during pregnancy, highest parental education level, mother's ethnicity and the child's age, birth weight and sex and.