Table 2

 Factors impacting the health of children aged <5 years in Africa

EconomicPoliticalSocialEnvironmental
National or internationalDebt
>Trade and investment
>Quantity and quality of foreign aid
Conflict; inside and with neighbouring countries
>Population movement—internally displaced persons (IDPs) or refugees
>Amount of corruption
>Amount of GDP spent on health, education, and defence
Free and widely available education
>Population growth
>Prevalence of HIV and access to antiretroviral medication
The proportion of the population with improved quality water and sanitation
>Infrastructure to deal with natural disasters
Domestic (in or around the home)Sufficient food
>Parents employed
>Shelter
>Free or affordable healthcare
Living in a refugee/IDP camp or in a conflict/post-conflict situationFree education
>Number of children in the family
>Family affected by HIV
Access to improved quality water and sanitation