eLetters

132 e-Letters

published between 2014 and 2017

  • An additional age-appropriate vancomycin formulation for Clostridium Difficile Infection disease in infants and young children.

    To the editor:

    We have read with great interest the investigation by Ivanovska et al in which they compared the antibiotic formulations included on the WHO Essencial Medicines List for Children (EMLc) versus four pertinent International Formularies (-1- ). As a result, they identified nine clinically relevant additional formulations on the comparator lists which were not listed on the WHO EMLc.
    We would like to mention another relevant formulation of great interest, which was not studied by the authors as it was not included on the lists they selected for the comparison study.
    They found only one vancomycin formulation on the WHO EMLc (250mg powder for injection) and two additional formulations on the comparator lists (125mg and 250mg oral capsules). Neither the WHO EMLc nor the comparator lists had any reference about oral liquid formulations of vancomycin; they are commercially available only in a few countries. However, they are necessary to simplify and facilitate the proper oral administration of the drug to infants and young children to treat Clostridium Difficile (CD) Infection (CDI) disease in accordance with therapeutic guidelines.

    CD has become the most common cause of health care-associated infections in US hospitals (-2- ). Since the discovery of CDI there has been an alarming increase in the incidence, severity, recurrence rate of the disease and mortality. The emergence of an epidemic hypervirulent strain of toxin –producing CD in r...

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  • Prevalence and Aetiology of ADHD

    I would like to thank Professor Taylor for his response, and apologise if my second response seems rude. I thought the first one had been overlooked.

    We do indeed agree that there is a large unmet need due to the under-recognition of ADHD and, I would suggest, other developmental disorders with a supposed genetic aetiology which seem to be more common than they were. The question of aetiology is, of course, pertinent to the epidemiology and the service needs assessment. Urgent too, if children's community services are not to be overwhelmed.

  • Dual-strain probiotics reduce NEC, mortality and neonatal bloodstream infections among extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants

    Berrington and Ward Platt recently summarized current advances in the management of preterm infants born < 1000 g, so called extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants (1). In this thoroughly done review, the authors highlighted the findings of the 2014 Cochrane review showing probiotics to reduce all-cause mortality and NEC in preterm infants, but not in the subgroup of ELBW infants (2). They hypothesized the lacking protective effect in this extremely vulnerable population to be attributable to their general immaturity, the timing of probiotic exposure or the small sample size of only 575 ELBW infants analyzed. Another recent meta-analysis did not show a significant beneficial effect of probiotics on sepsis in 771 ELBW infants included (3). This demands further studies with adequate power on the use of probiotics in infants born < 1000 g. Almost at the same time, we published a multi-center time series analysis supporting the beneficial effects of dual-strain probiotics on NEC, overall-mortality and nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSI) in preterm infants (4). Beyond that, we performed a subgroup analyses with 4683 ELBW infants. Routine use of dual-strain probiotics significantly reduced the risk of NEC (HR 0.48, 95 % CI 0.36 – 0.64), overall mortality (HR 0.59, 95 % CI 0.41 – 0.84) and nosocomial BSI (HR 0.83, 95 % CI 0.74 – 0.94) in this cohort. Further, probiotics also protected ELBW infants from mortality following NEC (HR 0.40, 95 % CI 0.19 – 0.85). Up to dat...

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  • Pulse oximetry in children under the magnifying glass

    Dear Authors.

    In your paper [1], you did not mention a previous prospective study performed by our group [2], on 148 otherwise healthy children referred to a Sleep Center for suspected OSA. In our study, pulse oximetry metrics were similar on the two consecutive nights. The McGill Oximery Score (MOS) on the two nights showed excellent night-to-night consistency when analyzed as positive for OSA versus inconclusive. We highlighted that the findings may not apply to younger infants, to adolescents, or to children with complex comorbidities.

    Our conclusions were different from yours for at least two main reasons.

    Firstly, you accepted oximetry recording lasting ≥ 4 hrs. On our opinion, this cut off is too low and it cannot be sufficiently representative of an overnight study. In our study [2], we accepted recordings lasting ≥ 6 hrs according to the ATS guidelines for sleep study.

    Secondly, you used a Nonin 9600 Pulse Oximeter with Nellcor neonatal-adult SpO2 sensor. In our study [2], we used a motion-resistant Radical 5 Masimo Pulse Oximeter. Previous studies [3,4], demonstrated the superiority of the Radical Masimo technology.

    We believe that your study was performed using suboptimal technology and the criteria for minimum acceptable recording time didn’t respect the ATS guidelines. Therefore, your results should be considered with caution.

    Convincing data already exist on pulse oximetry and the analysis of MOS as a useful tool for...

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  • Ward-based High-flow Nasal Cannula Therapy May Delay ICU Admission and Increase Requirement for Intubation in Young Infants with Bronchiolitis

    Dear Editor,
    We woud like to respond to one of the issues raised in the audit of high
    flow nasal cannula (HHFNC) recently published (1). As the authors observed, although evidence for efficacy is lacking,
    clinical pactice has rapidly expanded the indications for respiratory
    support on the ward using HHFNC. We have observed a number of cases
    where commencement of HHFNC may have delayed referral to the PICU
    service, and are concerned that this may have affected the level of
    respiratory support required on subsequent admission to PICU. Humidified high flow nasal cannula (HHFNC) provides heated and
    humidified air/oxygen flow to support respiratory function in sick
    infants and children. Flow rates may be up to 60L/min, and are usually
    titrated at 1-3L/kg depending on clinical work of breathing (WOB). The
    concentration of oxygen may be adjusted to maintain oxygen saturations
    within the normal range for each child. Pediatric units providing this
    therapy, usually do so within agreed guidelines. Some units mandate
    admission to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU), and some
    administer HHFNC on the ward. There is some evidence that the use of
    HHFNC may reduce the need for PICU admission and more advanced
    respiratory support (2). However, studies to date have not stratified
    infants further, into categories of risk of failure of therapy (3). Yet
    infants with significan...

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  • The Prevalence of ADHD is 5% in Childhood.
    Michael A. Colvin

    Professor Taylor, quoting a sound meta-analysis by Polanczyk et al published 16 years previously, declares that the prevalence of ADHD is around 5%. He appears convinced that the prevalence has not changed and does not change, and he explains that rates which differ from around 5% are either due to over-diagnosis or under-diagnosis.

    I hope I am not being impudent in suggesting that the professor has a rather in...

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  • Re: What we may have missed
    Eric Taylor

    Thanks to Dr Colvin for his interest. I should like to clarify that an "unspoken assumption" of genetic determinism did not underlie my review. I agree with his points on the aetiology: the balance of genetic and environmental influences and their interaction deserve much more study. The aetiology, however, is an issue rather separate from prevalence. Even if countries did differ in their actual rates (rather than just...

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  • Conclusions not justified by findings
    Charlotte M Wright
    It is encouraging to see a clinical service making an effort to examine the patterns of growth found in their condition. However the conclusions drawn from their data seem greatly overstated. They describe a pattern of 'progressive growth failure' in nearly a quarter of children with ataxia telangiectasia (AT), yet there is an average decline across all children of less than half a centile space over 3 years. These children are...
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  • Integrated services for infants, children and young people
    Elaine P Lockhart

    This article helps us think about how we would like to provide services to infants, children and young people (ICYP) in response to changing needs, financial constraints and a push for multi-agency integrated working. We propose that paediatric services should have integrated mental health expertise in primary care, community and hospital based services. This would allow for prevention and early intervention, development...

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  • The lost children
    brian mcnicholl

    Wright and Wales highlight the issues of childhood obesity but there is a lack of clear guidance on who should deal with it. The suggestion to " opportunistically discuss a childs weight" is easier said than done. Whose responsibility is it ? There is little immediate consequence if it is not done. Obesity is rarely the presenting complaint to a doctor. So tackling obesity, in addition to the primary complaint is two co...

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