eLetters

142 e-Letters

published between 2014 and 2017

  • Response to Seizures, safety and submersion: sense and sensibility

    I am grateful for the clarification of one specific point made in the original paper published in Archives of Disease in Childhood by Richard Franklin, John Pearn and Amy Peden (Drowning fatalities in childhood: the role of pre-existing medical conditions. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2017; 102:888-93). This relates to their recommendations on swimming safely that reflected both their collective experiential opinion, as well as the recommendations of authorities such as the ‘Royal Life Saving Society – Australia’ and other Australian water safety organisations. Understandably, these authorities will have a significant adult bias and one could – and reasonably should – question some of their criteria, both in terms of ‘seizures’ (i.e. what type of 'seizure') and seizure-frequency. I would challenge the comment made by the International Life Saving Federation in which they state: “Epilepsy submersion and drowning risk is greatest in an identified high-risk group that includes: those with frequent (more than one per year) seizures….”; the majority of paediatricians and paediatric neurologists and probably adult physicians that treat people with epilepsy would not define “frequent” as more than one seizure per year; by definition this would include two seizures per year. My point remains that doctors, and the many different authorities to which they provide expert advice, should no longer consider and cite epilepsy as a single disorder but as a group of disorders...

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  • Testing in relation to timing of illness needs to be considered

    The authors have added an interesting opportunity to refine our clinical decision making with the addition of a point of care test (POC) . However I would argue that choice of POC test might be a critical factor here and very much dependent on initial onset of symptoms. Some years ago published data on the then relatively new POC test for Procalcitonin (PCT-Q) indicated that children presenting within 24 h, PCT performed significantly better (AUC 0.96, SE 0.05) than CRP (0.74, 0.12).(1) This could well explain the differences the authors found in the primary care arm of their study. Setting for these tests becomes increasingly important as we see a shift of more children being seen in GP run Urgent Care Centres with a possibly a different spectrum of illness severity.(2) Prospective studies in different settings comparing both of these biomarkers as POCs would be worth further cosideration.

    References
    1 K. Brent, S .M. Hughes, S .Kumar, A. Gupta, A. Trewick,
    S. Rainbow, R. Wall and M. Blair
    Is procalcitonin a discriminant marker of early
    invasive bacterial infection in children?
    Current Paediatrics (2003) 13, 399

    2 . Gritz A, Sen A, Hiles S, Mackenzie G, Blair M. G241(P) More under-fives now seen in urgent care centre than A&E- should we shift our focus? Arch Dis Child [Internet]. 2016 Apr 27 [cited 2016 Aug 3];101(Suppl 1):A132.1-A132. Available from:...

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  • Nevere X ray

    Dear Editor,

    We appreciated the paper by McCrossan and others but we believe that the diagnosis of pneumonia in children should be made on a clinical ground and that chest X-rays should be considered only in case of a diagnostic doubt or to rule out a complication such as pleural effusion.[1] A X-ray control after a round pneumonia in adults is prescribed with the aim of ruling out an undelying cancer but this is an extremely rare condition in children. Considering this, rather than discussing the opportunity of a radiologic follow up we should consider the opportunity of adapting international guidelines to children.

    1. McCrossan P, McNaughten B, Shields M et al. Is follow up chest X-ray required in children with round pneumonia? Arch Dis Child 2017;102:1182-1183

  • Response to Edward J O’Hagan: Tertium non datur

    Response to Edward J O’Hagan: Tertium non datur

    I thank Mr O’Hagan for his insightful comments. Indeed it is implicit in the ideas put forward in my paper that a specific infection is not the “cause” of SIDS but, rather, it is the immunological response to the infection (bacterial or viral) in the predisposed infant that results in SIDS as proposed by Dr Korsch with his suggested “immunological burst.”

    As mentioned in my response to Dr Korsch, I have extended the infection paradigm to take into account the as yet unexplained risk factor of prone sleep position. (See my paper accepted for publication in Frontiers in Pediatrics.1) The presence of infection is a requirement for the effect of prone sleep position to prevail and suggests a role for the Vagus in unfavourably tipping the homeostatic balance through neuroimmunological pathways.

    Paul N. Goldwater

    Reference:

    1. Goldwater PN. SIDS, infection, prone sleep position & Vagal neuroimmunology. Front Pediatr 2017; doi:10.3389/fped.2017.00223

    Conflict of interest

    None declared.

  • Response to Dr Eckhard Korsch’s letter: SIDS as the consequence of an immunological burst

    Response to Dr Eckhard Korsch’s letter: SIDS as the consequence of an immunological burst

    I thank Dr Korsch for his supportive and helpful comments with which I fully concur. I remain concerned by the general lack of appreciation by mainstream SIDS researchers of the essential requirement of congruency between risk factors (male gender, prone sleep position, contaminated sleeping surfaces, smoke exposure, lack of breast feeding, high birth order, etc.) and various staining findings of brainstem nuclei or other pathological findings such as intrathoracic petechiae. The silence from the mainstream sector in relation to my ideas is also of concern. Funding of mainstream SIDS research will continue unimpeded as long as facts set out in my papers are not publicised and addressed. Such funding is an unconscionable waste.

    In a new paper accepted for publication in Frontiers in Pediatrics1 I have extended the infection paradigm to take into account the as yet unexplained risk factor of prone sleep position. It seems that only in the presence of infection does prone sleep position achieve significance. My thinking suggests a role for the Vagus in unfavourably tipping the homeostatic balance through neuroimmunological pathways.

    Paul N. Goldwater

    Reference:

    1. Goldwater PN. SIDS, infection, prone sleep position & Vagal neuroimmunology. Front Pediatr 2017; doi:10.3389/fped.2017.00223

    Conflict of interest

    None declared.

  • Community paediatrics in Israel - spotlight on terminology

    Confusion may arise in the minds of UK-based readers of this article due to the terminology used in this article, which differs slightly from the notion of “community paediatrics” in the UK.

    Whereas in the UK all children receive primary care from a General Practitioner (GP), who then makes referrals to secondary and tertiary level specialists as required, the Israeli “community paediatrician” referred to in this article is actually a primary care paediatrician, who delivers all aspects of medical care to the infant and child, much as the GP in the UK does for both adults and children.

    The majority of children and young people in Israel receive primary medical care from a fully qualified paediatrician who has achieved consultant (or specialist) status with a minimum of 4.5-5 years of general paediatric training. Only a minority of children and young people in Israel receive primary medical care from a Family Physician (equivalent to the UK “GP”). Paediatricians in Israel can work either in primary care or as paediatricians with an additional sub-specialty in hospitals, or can work in both settings in parallel (often working part or full time in hospital and moonlighting in primary care).

    In the UK, the “community paediatrician” is a second tier specialist who deals in specific medical areas , and accepts referrals from the primary medical carer (GP), via a selective referral system. Community paediatricians in the UK usually provide neuro-development...

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  • Ryanodine Receptor mutation

    Hello,
    After reviewing some cases presenting to Bristol with Rhabdomyolysis I wondered if this child had genetics sent for Ryanodine Receptor gene (RYR gene). This can cause malignant hyperthermia and in our case the boy resented with muscle pain on exertion and recurrent rhabdomyolysis. The article below is useful.
    Chan EK, Kornberg AJ, Ryan MM, A diagnostic approach to recurrent myalgia and rhabdomyolysis in children. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2015;100:793-797.

  • Platelet transfusions in haemolytic uraemic syndrome

    Sirs,
    I read with great interest the article entitled “Treatment and management of children with haemolytic uraemic syndrome” by Walsh and Johnson recently published in Archives of Disease in Childhood (1). In this review, the authors quoted a study performed by our team that investigated the effect of platelet transfusions in children with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) (2). The main finding of this study is that we did not find statistically significant evidence of worse disease in children who received platelets; however, the authors of the current review outlined that there was a trend towards prolonged need for dialysis among patients who received platelets. A close analysis of this point showed that transfused patients required dialysis for a median of 7 (2-22) days whereas those not transfused for 10 (2-30) days. Therefore, unlike their statement, comparison of these values (p = 0.08) shows a trend towards shorter duration of dialysis in the group receiving platelets. Despite this result, we still suggest that platelet transfusion should be minimized or avoided if possible in patients with HUS.

    References

    1. Walsh PR, Johnson S. Treatment and management of children with haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Arch Dis Child 2017; Sep 12. [Epub ahead of print]
    2. Balestracci A, Martin SM, Toledo I, et al. Impact of platelet transfusions in children with post-diarrheal hemolytic uremic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol 2013;28:919–25.

  • Response to Seizures, safety and submersion: sense and sensibility

    The Editorial by Professor Richard Appleton, ‘Seizures, safety and submersion: sense and sensibility’ addresses crucial points relating to children with epilepsy and their optimal, but safe, participation in aquatic activities 1. All agree that the goal is to ensure that children from all backgrounds and with pre-existent medical conditions grow up to have a ‘normal and unrestricted life’ 1. Aquatics are an important activity for all children in both developed and developing nations 2. Our study was undertaken specifically to determine the relative risk of different medical conditions 3. Like the other studies quoted by Professor Appleton, pre-existent epilepsy has been found to pose an increased risk of drowning by a factor of between 2 and 10. The absence of other pre-morbid diagnoses may either reflect a selection bias in that parents are not allowing those children to participate in aquatics or that parents recognise the hazards and put in place appropriate safety strategies. Differential aquatic exposure rates, specific for different pre-existent medical conditions, are unknown; and therefore denominators which define specific risks remain unknown. In our paper we recommend that ‘Children with epilepsy may swim with safety if drug levels are in the therapeutic range, the child has been seizure-free for 6-12 months and compensatory extra supervision is in place’ (3). These reflect the opinions of the authors, but are generally cognat...

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  • Recent identification of pleuropulmonary blastoma following non-urgent resection of a cystic pulmonary airway malformation.

    We read with interest the recent paper by Cook et al(1) reporting their experience with 119 cases of cystic pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM); in which no reported cases showed malignant change. The potential for malignant transformation of CPAM is well-described but extremely rare. Type 1 can predispose to mucinous bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma in adults, type 2 are associated with pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB)(2). We describe a case of PPB diagnosed histologically following non-urgent resection of a CPAM.
    A 10-month old boy was routinely referred by primary care with episodic wheeze and shortness of breath. He was thriving with no clinical stigmata nor symptoms of malignancy, and no relevant family history.
    Examination noted reduced air entry to the left lung; chest x-ray showed extensive left sided hyperlucency with mediastinal shift. Urgent chest CT with contrast demonstrated a very large multi-septated cystic malformation arising in the left lower lobe, with no systemic arterial supply. He was referred to the paediatric thoracic surgeons.
    Four months later he had reduced exercise tolerance and one brief admission for pneumonia. Surgical excision took place one year after CT imaging. Resection was uncomplicated and subsequent histological identification of a type 2 CPAM with PPB was unexpected. There were nodules containing malignant spindle epithelioid cells and he has since commenced chemotherapy.
    Previous papers have shown that karyoty...

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