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Socioeconomic variation in height: analysis of National Child Measurement Programme data for England
  1. Caroline Hancock1,
  2. Silvana Bettiol2,
  3. Lesley Smith3
  1. 1Public Health England, KIT East Midlands, Mansfield, UK
  2. 2School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Medical Sciences Precinct, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
  3. 3Department of Psychology, Social Work and Public Health, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK
  1. Correspondence to Caroline Hancock, Public Health England, KIT East Midlands, Mill 3, Pleasley Vale Business Park, Outgang Lane, Mansfield NG19 8RL, UK; carolineahancock{at}gmail.com

Abstract

Objective Short stature is associated with increased risk of ill health and mortality and can negatively impact on an individual's economic opportunity and psychological well-being. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between height and area-level deprivation by ethnic group in children in England.

Design Cross-sectional analysis of data gathered from the National Child Measurement Programme 2008/2009 to 2012/2013.

Participants/methods Children (n=1 213 230) aged 4–5 and 10–11 years attending state-maintained primary schools in England. Mean height SD score (SDS) (based on the British 1990 growth reference) was calculated for children by Income Deprivation Affecting Children Index as a measure of area-level deprivation. Analyses were performed by sex and age group for white British, Asian and black ethnicities.

Results For white British children mean height decreased 0.2 SDS between the least and the most deprived quintile. For Asian children the relationship was weaker and varied between 0.08 and 0.18 SDS. For white British boys the magnitude of association was similar across age groups; for Asian boys the magnitude was higher in the age group of 10–11 years and in white British girls aged 10–11 years the association decreased. Height SDS was similar across all levels of deprivation for black children.

Conclusions Social inequalities were shown in the height of children from white British and Asian ethnic groups. Further evaluation of height in black children is warranted. Action is needed to reduce inequalities in height by addressing the modifiable negative environmental factors that prevent healthy growth and development of children.

  • Epidemiology
  • Statistics

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