Article Text

other Versions

PDF
The congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders
  1. N J Gutowski1,2,
  2. J K Chilton2
  1. 1Department of Neurology, Royal Devon and Exeter Foundation Hospital, Exeter, UK
  2. 2University of Exeter Medical School, Exeter, UK
  1. Correspondence to N J Gutowski, Department of Neurology, Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, Barrack Road, Exeter EX2 5DW, UK; N.J.Gutowski{at}exeter.ac.uk

Abstract

Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDD) encompass a number of related conditions and includes Duane syndrome, congenital fibrosis of the external ocular muscles, Möbius syndrome, congenital ptosis and hereditary congenital facial paresis. These are congenital disorders where the primary findings are non-progressive and are caused by developmental abnormalities of cranial nerves/nuclei with primary or secondary dysinnervation. Several CCDD genes have been found, which enhance our understanding of the mechanisms involved in brain stem development and axonal guidance.

  • Genetics
  • Ophthalmology
  • Neuromuscular
  • Neurodevelopment
  • Neurology

Statistics from Altmetric.com

Request permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.