Objectives To estimate the incidence of cystic-fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) in youth from New South Wales (NSW) and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), Australia and to examine demographic/clinical features at diagnosis.
Methods Incident cases of CFRD in young people aged ≤18 years diagnosed during 2000 to 2008 were identified from four paediatric cystic fibrosis (CF) clinics and the NSW/ACT Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group Diabetes Register.
Results CFRD was diagnosed in 41 cases (59% girls). The estimated mean annual incidence of CFRD among patients with CF was 9.4 per 1000 person years (95% CI 6.8 to 12.8). Incidence increased from 2.0 per 1000 person years in 2000 to 22.1 per 1000 in 2008 (incidence RR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.4). Haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was abnormal in the majority at diagnosis: median HbA1c was 6.9% (6.2–8.1%). More cases were diagnosed using an oral glucose tolerance test in 2007–2008 compared with previous years (61% vs 6%, p<0.001).
Conclusions CFRD is increasingly recognised and now affects approximately one in five young people with CF. The rising incidence is likely to be due to increased detection, resulting from greater awareness and changes in screening practices. Widespread uptake of consensus guidelines for screening will ensure accurate case detection, but will also impact on patient care and resource allocation.
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Competing interests None.
Ethics approval This study was conducted with the approval obtained from all participating centres.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.