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High prevalence of asymptomatic vitamin-D and iron deficiency in East African immigrant children and adolescents living in a temperate climate
  1. George McGillivray (george.mcgillivray{at}ghsv.org.au)
  1. Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Australia
    1. Susan A Skull (sue.skull{at}rch.org.au)
    1. University of Melbourne, Australia
      1. Gabrielle Davie (petengabbi{at}slingshot.co.nz)
      1. Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Australia
        1. Sarah Kofoed (sarsiek{at}yahoo.com)
        1. Royal Children's Hospital, Australia
          1. Lexi Frydenberg (lexi.frydenberg{at}rch.org.au)
          1. Royal Children's Hospital, Australia
            1. James Rice (james.rice{at}rch.org.au)
            1. Royal Children's Hospital, Australia
              1. Regina Cooke (regina.cooke{at}rch.org.au)
              1. Royal Children's Hospital, Australia
                1. Jonathan R Carapetis (jonathan.carapetis{at}menzies.edu.au)
                1. Menzies School of Health Research, Australia

                  Abstract

                  Objectives: Vitamin-D deficiency (VDD) is common in immigrant children with increased skin pigmentation living in higher latitudes. We assessed the pattern of and risk factors for VDD in immigrant East African children living in Melbourne (latitude 37°49' South).

                  Study design: A prospective survey of 232 East African children attending a clinic in Melbourne. Data were collected by questionnaire, medical assessment and laboratory tests.

                  Results: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin-D levels (<50 nmol/L) occurred in 87% of children, and VDD (25OHD <25 nmol/L) in 44%. Risk factors included age <5 years, female gender, increased time in Australia, decreased daylight exposure, and winter/spring season. Anemia (20%), vitamin-A deficiency (20%) and iron deficiency (19%) were also identified..

                  Conclusions: Asymptomatic vitamin-D is common in East African immigrant children residing at a temperate latitude. Risk factors for VDD limit endogenous vitamin-D production. Screening of immigrant children with increased skin pigmentation, for VDD, anaemia, iron and vitamin-A deficiency is appropriate. VDD in adolescent females identifies an increased risk of future infants with VDD.

                  • Vitamin-D deficiency
                  • anaemia
                  • growth
                  • immigrant
                  • prevention

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