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No temporal association between influenza outbreaks and invasive pneumococcal infections
  1. Andre M Toschke (michael.toschke{at}kcl.ac.uk)
  1. Institute for Social Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-, Germany
    1. Stephan Arenz (stephan.arenz{at}lgl.bayern.de)
    1. Institute for Social Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-, Germany
      1. Rüdiger von Kries (prof.von.kries{at}kinderzentrum-muenchen.de)
      1. Institute for Social Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-, Germany
        1. Wolfram Puppe (puppe{at}pediatrics.uni-kiel.de)
        1. University Children's Hospital Kiel, Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Kiel, Germany
          1. Josef A Weigl (weigl{at}pediatrics.uni-kiel.de)
          1. University Children's Hospital Kiel, Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Kiel, Germany
            1. Michael Höhle (michael.hoehle{at}stat.uni-muenchen.de)
            1. Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Department of Statistics, Munich, Germany
              1. Ulrich Heininger (ulrich.heininger{at}unibas.ch)
              1. University Children's Hospital Basel, Division of Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Basel, Switzerland

                Abstract

                Objective: To assess whether the influenza peak in populations precedes the annual peak for invasive pneumococcal infections (IPI) in winter.

                Design: Ecological study. Active surveillance data on influenza A and IPI in children up to 16 years of age collected from 1997 to 2003 were analyzed.

                Setting: Paediatric hospitals in Germany.

                Patients: Children under 16 years of age.

                Results: In all years under study the influenza A season did not appear to affect the IPI season (p=0.49). Specifically, the influenza peak never preceded the IPI peak.

                Conclusion: On a population level there was no indication that the annual influenza epidemic triggered the winter increase in the IPI rate or the peak of the IPI distribution in children.

                • influenza
                • invasive pneumococcal infections
                • seasonality
                • streptococcus pneumoniae

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