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Hyponatraemia and hypokalaemia during intravenous fluid administration
  1. Kate Armon (kate.armon{at}
  1. Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, United Kingdom
    1. Stephen D Playfor (stephen.playfor{at}
    1. Royal Manchester Children's Hospital, United Kingdom
      1. Andrew Riordan (andrew.riordan{at}
      1. Royal Liverpool Children's Hospital, United Kingdom
        1. Guy Millman (gcmillman1{at}
        1. York Hospital, York, United Kingdom
          1. Abdul Khader (abdul.khader{at}
          1. Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom


            Hospital-acquired hyponatraemia can be fatal. It is associated with excessive volumes of hypotonic intravenous fluids. A cross-sectional survey in 17 hospitals found 77/99 children receiving intravenous fluids received hypotonic solutions, 38% received >105% of fluid requirements. 21/86 were hyponatraemic, but only 79% had electrolytes checked in the preceeding 48 hours. Intravenous fluids should be used with caution with regard to the tonicity and volume administered, and appropriate monitoring of serum electrolytes.

            • child
            • hypokalaemia
            • hyponatraemia
            • intravenous fluid administration

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