Aim: There is much debate concerning whether there is increasing prevalence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias. To address this issue we investigated the birth prevalence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias in the Northern Region of England during the period 1993 to 2000.
Methods: Cases of cryptorchidism and hypospadias were identified from Northern Region Hospital Episodes Statistics (HES). Trends in birth prevalence, based on the number of male live births, were assessed using linear regression.
Results: Prevalence was 7.6 per 1000 male live births for cryptorchidism and 3.1 per 1000 male live births for hypospadias. The orchidopexy rate for 0-4 years old and 5-14 years olds was 1.8 and 0.8 per 1000 male population respectively. The rate for hypospadias repair (M731) per 1000 male population aged less than 5 years was 0.6 and 0.1 cases per 1000 male population aged 0-4 and aged 5-14 years, respectively. There was a statistically significant decreasing temporal trend for the corrective procedure in cryptorchidism of 0.1 per 1000 male population under 5 years per annum (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.01 to -0.05, P<0.001), but no temporal change for the corrective procedure in hypospadias (P=0.60).
Conclusion: HES data were of high quality for the study period. There was no significant change in the prevalence of operated hypospadias. However, there was an apparent decline in the prevalence of operated cryptorchidism that may be real or may be due to a decrease in interventions. If there is a true decrease the reasons are not known.
- birth prevalence