Atopic dermatitis (AD), is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. It has two phases, acute and chronic. Studies pointed to interleukin (IL)-18 as key player in the pathogenesis of AD and the switch between its two phases.
Objective This study is designed to evaluate serum IL-18 among other T helper (Th) cytokines IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, interferon- γ (IFN-γ), tumour necrosis factor – α (TNF –α) and immunoglobulin E (Ig E), in addition to vitamins E and C in children and adolescents with acute and chronic AD.
Materials and subjects Sixty AD patients were classified into two main groups; children (acute) and adolescents (chronic) AD of thirty each. In addition, two corresponding healthy normal control groups of thirty each were considered. Serum IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IL-18, IFN-γ and IgE were estimated by ELISA.
Results IL-12, IL-18 and IFN-γ levels were 2–4 folds more in chronic AD compared to normal subjects. While, IL-18 showed significant higher mean value in chronic than acute AD patients. Although, TNF –α showed, significant increase one fold and half in acute than chronic AD. Moreover, vitamins C and E showed significant decrease in both cases with severe reduction in chronic than acute AD patients.
Conclusion ILs, IFN-γ, TNF- α and serum IgE have a pivotal role in AD. IL-18 measurement is a valuable tool for assessment of the difference in age related – disease severity. Intensive reduction in both vitamins C and E in chronic AD patients than acute one.