Objectives To assess the yield of radiological retrograde uretrocystography (UCR) done systematically after a first episode of urinary tract infection (UTI) in infant less than 1 year.
Methodology A retrospective cohort study conducted in the Department of Paediatrics at Monastir included all patients between 1 month and 12 months who underwent UCR after a first episode of UTI between January 2000 and July 2013. Results: 203 infant were included, mean age was 5.69 months (peak was between 3–6 months). Fever was present in 190 infant (93.5%) of which 32 (15.7%) had prolonged fever. Germs found in culture were dominated by Escherichia coli present in 83% of children. CRP was positive in 88.6% of patients. Renal ultrasonography was performed in all cases and showed abnormalities in 57 cases (28%). The pyelocalicial dilatation was predominant (28 cases). The UCR showed abnormalities in 24 children which utrasonography findings were also abnormal. The most common abnormalities were primary vesico-ureteral reflux; 14 infants (6.9%) had high grade (bilateral in 7 cases). 6 patients (3%) had unilateral had low grade reflux in 3 cases and bilateral in 3 cases.
Conclusion As recommended, the indications of UCR in infants should be limited to abnormal ultrasound or recurrent UTI.