Background and aims Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) is a group of rare congenital malformations of the lung and airways, with varying clinical pictures. Lung ultrasound (LUS) is a quick, easy and cheap imaging technique that is increasingly used in critical care settings. Specific LUS findings have been described for some types of neonatal lung injury, but no formal data exist on pulmonary malformations. We here describe ultrasound findings in CCAM.
Methods Three patients with a prenatal diagnosis of CCAM and presenting with neonatal respiratory distress were examined by LUS, during the first week of life, using a linear 12–18 MHz, or a microconvex 7,5 MHz probe. Chest CT-scans were used as reference.
Results LUS findings were variable and corresponded well with CT-scan images (LUS dynamic video recordings will be showarn). One patient had a single large hypoechogenic cystic lesion. Two patients had several hypoechogenic lesions, of various size and form, surrounded by consolidated lung tissue. All patients showed normal lung patterns in the areas adjacent to the CCAM. LUS did not permit the exact localization of lung lesions.
Conclusions We provide the first formal description of LUS findings in neonates with CCAM. Further studies are necessary to define the place of LUS in the management of CCAM. LUS could be a useful tool in screening asymptomatic patients and determining optimal timing for CT-scan and surgery, thereby limiting radiation exposure.