Preterm infant gut has been described as immature and colonised by an aberrant microbiota.
Objectives Elucidate if administration of two probiotic strains isolated from human milk to preterm infants led to their presence in faeces. Secondarily, evolution of immunological compounds in blood and faecal samples was also assessed.
Materials and methods Inclusion criteria: Birth weight <1,300 g, gestational age <29 weeks. Preterms received two daily doses (~109CFU) of a mixture of B. breve PS12929 and L. salivarius PS12934 after meconiorrhexis. Meconium samples were collected prior to and faecal and blood samples were collected weekly for up to 28 days. Faecal bacterial growth was detected by culture-dependent techniques. Cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and immunoglobulins were determined by multiplex technologies. The statistical analysis was performed using R2.15.3.
Result and discussion Supplementation of five with this probiotics was effective in enhancing the levels of L. salivarius PS12934 that could be isolated from day 7 of intervention and its presence remained constant throughout the study; B. breve PS12929 was be detected later, after day 14, but had an increasing presence in the faecal samples. IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 concentrations, related to anti-inflammatory processes, and IL-8 and MCP-1 were similar to those values previously reported for ‘late-preterms’ at 7 days of life, this may reflect the immumodulatory activity of the probiotic strains on this population. It demonstrated an increase in IgA since day 7. A reduction of calprotectin in faeces was observed throughout treatment. Globally, probiotic supplementation exerted a strong influence on gut colonisation.