Background and aims We studied the feto-placental interface, in the Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), to present his specific structural modifications and his cellular injuries.
Method An optical microscopic analysis was performed on 30 placentas, obtained after delivery for two equal groups representing mothers with GDM and normal pregnancies. The samples obtained by sections were specifically prepared for the study using three types of histological stains. The histological observation centred upon the: trophoblast, villous stroma and fetal capillary. The statistical study of the data was performed using SPSS 17.0.
Results Through optical microscopy were identified varying degrees of lesions consisting of: villous oedema, proliferation and villous fibrosis of the capillaries, large number of syncytial knots, important fibrinoid necrosis, moderate fibrin thrombi, hyperplasia of the syncytiotrophoblast, chorangiosis, slightly thickened of the basement membrane of the feto-maternal interface.
Conclusion Histological changes in the placentas of women with GDM are significant factors contributing to fetal anoxia with impact on placental vascular permeability. A diabetic milieu causes vascular dysfunction, increasing angiogenesis in GDM is considerred to be the cause of the placental abnormalities and complications (miscarriage, stillbirth, macrosomia, and congenital anomalies).