Background The prevalence of ESBL bacteria in community-acquired UTIs is increasing. This is of concern, since antibiotic therapy would be restricted to a few antibiotics, including carbapenems (in turn, the frequent use of penems leads to carbapenem-resistance), aminoglycosides, colimycin and fosfomycin.
Aims To describe the prevalence of ESBL among Gram-negative bacteria causing community-acquired UTIs managed in a tertiary care PED serving an active Department of paediatric urology.
Methods Retrospective study of all UTI episodes diagnosed between 1st January and 31th December, 2012. UTIs were retrieved by using the PED and Bacteriology databases.
Results 457 (0.6%) community-acquired UTIs have been identified among 78,152 visits in the PED in 2012. 358 (78%) were diagnosed as acute pyelonephritis based on clinical signs and elevated CRP and/or PCT, and 99 (21%) as acute cystitis. Whereas no ESBL bacteria was identified among episodes of cystitis, 16 acute pyelonephritis cases were due to ESBL E.coli (i.e., 4.5% of all E.coli and 3.4% of all UTIs). 13/16 (81%) UTIs occurred in children suffering urinary tract abnormalities. Moreover, one child with vesico-ureteral bilateral reflux had 3 distinct episodes of UTIs due to ESBL K.pneumoniae in 2012.
Conclusions The incidence of ESBL E. coli causing community-acquired UTIs remains low (~5%) in a tertiary hospital PED. This reassuring finding comforts the French UTI current recommendations of using as a first-line therapy iv ceftriaxone for 4 days followed by oral cefixime for 6 additional days. However, ESBL bacteria causing UTIs are favoured by urinary malformations, previous hospitalisations and prophylactic antibiotics.