Background Acute diarrhoea (AD) plays an important role in paediatric patients because of its high incidence, severe clinical outcomes (dehydration) and epidemiological features (gastroenteritis spreads easily in children communities).
Aims To evaluate the aetiology of AD and epidemiological characteristics for hospitalised children during January 2013–January 2014.
Methods During mention period, there were performed stool cultures and Rotavirus/Adenovirus antigen testing from stool (immunochromatographic test) for patients admitted in paediatric hospital with AD diagnosis. The growth medium used for stool cultures: Hectoen-enteric and Selenite broth (for Salmonella, Shigella), Sorbitol MacConkey medium (for enteropathogen E. Coli -EPEC), CIN (for Yersinia) and CCDA (for Campylobacter, stool samples testing was initiated in July 2013). Exclusion criteria: positive stool culture for previously treated children.
Results There were performed 2138 stool cultures and 1358 tests for Rotavirus/Adenovirus. The authors have identified 73 Salmonella spp. cases, 12 Shigella spp. cases, 4 EPEC cases, 31 children with Campylobacter spp., 222 Rotavirus cases and 22 patients with positive test for Adenovirus. Authors remarked high incidence Salmonella infection in July -September period (39 cases, 53.4%) and increased incidence of Rotavirus infection with 2 peaks totaling 52.7% of cases (January –December and May respectively).
Acute gastroenteritis major aetiology was the viral one; 2. Concerning bacterial aetiology of AD, Campylobacter spp. represented the second cause (Salmonella spp. was more frequent); 3. The aetiology awareness is useful in order to treat optimally patients with AD; 4. The antibiotics are recommended just for selected cases.
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