Background and aims Nutrients are established as dietary risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but dietary patterns may be a better predictor of CVD risk. This study was conducted to identify dietary patterns and evaluated their association with biochemical blood profiles and body weight among 400 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged between 40–60 years.
Methods Biochemical blood profiles, anthropometric measurements, and dietary data were obtained. Food frequency questionnaire were used to derive dietary patterns. Factor analysis was conducted to ascertain the dietary patterns, and analysis of covariance was fitted to assess the relation between blood profiles, body weight and adherence to dietary patterns.
Results Three dietary patterns by factor analysis were identified, Vegetable and Poultry, Western and Mixed. After control for potential confounders, waist circumference (b = -0.12, p < 0.01) and body mass index (b = -0/15, p < 0.02) were negatively associated with vegetable and poultry dietary pattern. Conversely, total cholesterol (beta = 0.14, p < 0.008) and fasting blood glucose (b = 0.12, p < 0.01) were positively associated with western dietary pattern. A dietary pattern labelled as mixed pattern was found to be positively related to HDL-cholesterol (b = 0.16, p < 0.002) and body mass index (b = -0.18, p < 0.01). Associations between mixed pattern, LDL-cholesterol (b = -0.10, p < 0.04) and waist circumference (b = -0.24, p < 0.001) were negative.
Conclusion Dietary patterns of adults with diabetes were found to be associated with biochemical profiles. Mixed dietary pattern include nuts, fruit, olive oil and tea could improve lipid profiles. Further studies are necessary to confirm the benefits of the mixed pattern and develop practical dietary guide-line for diabetes.