Background and aims To assess the levels of lipid peroxidation and circulating levels of nitric oxide (NO), lipoproteins and immunoglobulins in type 1 diabetes children.
Methods Thirty (30) type 1 diabetic patients newly diagnosed and 30 healthy control subjects, comparable for age (less than 15 years), sex and body mass index (BMI) were recruited in the Department of Paediatrics in the Mother and Child Hospital of Tlemcen. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, CH2 (CHO) 2) using the thiobarbituric acid (TBA). The serum NOx (nitrate and nitrite, NOx [NO2-, NO3-]) was measured as an indirect marker of the formation of NO in vivo by the Griess method. Lipoproteins were measured by ultrasensitive gel electrophoresis (SEBIA, France). Immunoglobulins were determined by the radial immunodiffusion technique (IDR).
Results Circulating levels of MDA and NO production were significantly higher in type 1 diabetic patients compared to controls (respectively, p = 0.001, p = 0.01). This was also the same for immunoglobulins A, G and M (for all comparisons, p < 0.01). Circulating levels of alpha lipoprotein and Lp (a) were similar in both groups (p > 0.05); however, those of the pre-beta and beta lipoproteins were significantly increased in patients compared to controls (respectively, p = 0.039, p = 0.018).
Conclusion The onset of the DT1 is associated with nitrogen stress and oxidation of circulating lipids. Also, the excessive formation of NO and MDA may be the result of inflammatory conditions associated with the autoimmune disease process.