Background and aims The association between caffeine consumption and adverse perinatal outcomes is still controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the association between caffeine consumption during pregnancy and preterm birth (PT, <37 weeks) and low birthweight (LBW, <2500 g) in the birth cohort of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil in 2010.
Methods A convenience cohort of 1370 pregnant women living in the city was evaluated between 22–25 weeks of gestation and their respective newborns. Standardised questionnaires were applied during pregnancy and soon after birth and anthropometric information of the newborn was obtained from medical records. The independent variable was the consumption of caffeine during pregnancy (high consumption ≥300 mg caffeine/day), considering the informed consumption of coffee, tea, cola and chocolate milk. The dependent variables were LBW and PT. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of caffeine consumption and PT and LBW, adjusting for maternal biological and sociodemographic variables.
Results Caffeine intake in this cohort was 96.2%, being 5.6% of high consumption. In unadjusted analysis, women who consumed caffeine ≥300 mg/day had twice the risk of LBW (OR = 2.82; confidence interval 95%, CI95% 1.49–5.34) than those who consumed <300 mg/day, but no association with PT (OR = 1.88; CI95% 0.98–3.59) was observed. After adjustment, the risk of LBW was three times higher (OR = 3.35; CI95% 1.29–8.66) and there was no association with PT (OR = 1.19; CI95% 0.48–2.86).
Conclusions In this cohort, the frequency of high caffeine consumption was low; however, it was independently associated with LBW, but not with preterm birth.
Supported: FAPESP, FAEPA.