Enteroviruses (EV) are among the most common viruses infecting humans. One third of EV infections concern children under 1 year. Neonatal EV infections lead to a wide range of clinical manifestations, from mild febrile illness to severe, potentially fatal sepsislike conditions with multiorgan failure.
EV detections by serotype were reported by the “National Reference Centre for Infections EV” Lyon, on a monthly basis. Demographic, clinical and biological data are also collected in neonates hospitalised in 2012 for EV infection. Two sub-groups were identified according to the beginning of symptoms before or after 8 days of life (D8). There were 120 neonatal EV infections. Before D8, children with severe infection were born more prematurely with a low birth weight. EV most commonly detected in neonates included CVB4 and E11. Risk factors of severe EV infections included liver (73% before D8) and haematological damages (thrombocytopenia 82% and coagulopathy 64% before D8).
This study suggest a systematic serotyping of neonatal EV infections and biological monitoring of liver function to early identification of children at high risk of clinical severity and fatality.